A balanced market in which various services and transport modes compete fairly and collaborate efficiently is vital to building and sustaining mobility services’ profitability. Such a market should accommodate services so they can capture value across all four dimensions—value to the individual, society, environment, and economy.
Cities and regulators also play a significant role in building a balanced market. They can enable the integration of mobility services or incentivize providers through specific regulations. Furthermore, they can directly influence some of the key cost levers of mobility services through pricing of public space (e.g. on-road parking) and infrastructure (e.g. roads or waterways). This internalization of the cost of infrastructure is already common practice for practically all other modes of transport and is expected to be increasingly implemented in urban areas—as London and other cities have already done. But any regulation should reflect societal value and be equitable for all participants.