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What is Quantum computing?

Quantum computers harness the principles of entanglement and superposition to solve complex problems that traditional computers are unable to resolve in a timely or efficient manner. This breakthrough technology could revolutionize the world of computing, making it one of the most transformative advancements in technological history. While traditional computers use fundamental units of information known as bits, quantum computers use quantum bits, or qubits (pronounced as "CUEbits"), which work in a totally different way.

Qubits are capable of embodying multiple values simultaneously, in contrast to classical bits. Furthermore, the unique phenomenon of entanglement allows qubits to hold information that is influenced by one another, even when separated by long distances. This remarkable feature sets quantum computers apart from their classical counterparts and opens new frontiers for solving intricate challenges faster than ever before.

Why is Quantum computing important?

Quantum technology is advancing rapidly. Investments are expected to surge to $9.1B by 2030 (Tractica reports). Quantum computing opens paths for complex problem-solving that traditional computers cannot address. It offers boundless opportunities encompassing areas like optimization, machine learning, sampling and simulation, etc. Think of more accurate prototype testing for manufacturing; optimized traffic and route planning; faster, more accurate drug development or financial modeling and more.

Additionally, it raises significant security challenges. Modern security protocols rely on complex problems that classical computers take years to solve, ensuring data safety. Quantum computing, in contrast, poses a rapid decryption threat to these safeguards, leaving current security standards exposed. This also opens doors for post-quantum cryptography, a continuously evolving set of security protocols that aim to enhance data protection in a post-quantum era.

How does Quantum computing work? 

Like classical supercomputers, quantum computers perform multiple calculations concurrently. However, their distinctiveness stems from qubitsThink of regular bits like coins with just heads or tails as their two states. In contrast, qubits wobble between states, offering more possibilities to represent information. Moreover, pairs of qubits can be correlated to and be influenced by one another. Quantum computers employ clever operations on qubits, generating good statistical results in fewer computational steps than classical operations. These statistics are gathered by running quantum circuits repeatedly and measuring the resulting states, which then contain patterns that provide valuable insights into the solution to a problem. Repeating these techniques unveils patterns, which provides valuable insights.

Ultimately, quantum computing relies on statistics and probabilities to deliver confidence in their solutions.

What are the types of Quantum computers?

  • Gate-based

    Gate-based quantum computers are oftentimes known as “universal quantum computers” due to their ability to execute quantum mechanical operations precisely, which translates to solving a wide array of problems—even those traditionally handled by regular computers.

  • Annealing

    Quantum annealing computers specialize in optimization problems, akin to locating the deepest hole in a field full of pits. Quantum mechanics introduces tunnelling, allowing for efficient exploration of options and expediting the discovery of optimal solutions.

  • Topological

    In this approach, robust qubits with high error tolerance are cultivated, akin to forging a secure information pathway through a complex encoding scheme. Topological quantum computers can be considered as an implementation of gate-based quantum computers, with specific ways to encode information and operations.