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埃森哲《展望》期刊


加州梦

是什么让硅谷明星IT公司不断勇往直前?答案是这些公司融合创新、创业精神以及能够点燃员工斗志和激情的企业文化。

作为知名高科技公司云集之地,硅谷拥有苹果(Apple)、思科(Cisco Systems)、谷歌(Google)、惠普(Hewlett-Packard)、财捷公司(Intuit)、甲骨文(Oracle)和雅虎(Yahoo)等顶级IT公司,这些公司的成就和影响力已经远远超越旧金山湾区。

但真正带动硅谷IT公司发展的是各种人才,一个令人称叹的群体。总体上,约45%的硅谷人口至少拥有学士学位,而美国总人口中这一比例为28%。近20%的硅谷人持有研究生或其他专业性学位。硅谷吸引着来自全球的人才:逾60%在硅谷科技和工程领域工作的毕业生出生于美国本土以外。这种多元文化激发了各种不同的创意。

全球其它地方、其它行业也期待着这种不同寻常的创新精神和企业家精神。几乎全球每个地方都想成为“下一个硅谷”。各个行业的IT高管们希望效仿硅谷,点燃员工的某种激情和创意。 那么,他们能做到吗?

最新一项埃森哲调查 (见补充说明 ),显示 高科技公司建立和培养的独特文化是硅谷成功的秘诀之一。软件即服务供应商Workday公司首席战略信息官——史蒂文•约翰(Steven John)用海岛生物作比喻,“硅谷如同塔斯马尼亚岛或马达加斯加,这儿的生命形态与其它地方不同。”

我们采访了硅谷30多名非高科技行业的技术高管,包括高乐氏(Clorox Co.),盖普(Gap),CAMICO互助保险公司(CAMICO Mutual Insurance Co.)。我们发现,这些公司纷纷效仿高科技公司吸引顶尖人才的文化。从这些访谈中,我们可以获得一些洞察,了解其它行业和地区的IT部门是如何吸引及保留公司未来增长和成功所需人才的。

我们研究发现,在员工和企业文化管理方面,硅谷高科技公司及其主管们特别擅长管理五种看似矛盾的现象。

1. 闲散——但随时准备行动

从随意的穿着到咖啡店内随处可见的闲逛者,凡是到硅谷参观的人,无一不对加州这种固有的闲散生活方式印象深刻。然而,闲散只是故事的一部分。实际上,在闲散生活方式的背后是疯狂的产品开发速度和严苛的交付期限。很多公司产品研发周期都是以周来计算的,而不是月。

但真正驱动硅谷公司发展的,是强调快速完成任务而非纠缠于每个潜在的瑕疵。脸谱公司(Facebook)墙上标语“完成胜过完美”即是对该种态度的总结。根据我们的调研,认同此方法的硅谷科技人士是其它地方的两倍。

同样,硅谷公司无法忍受官僚主义或其它任何束缚企业迅速发展的事物。近60%的受访者认为,在决策速度方面,自己公司要胜过其它公司,而且制约因素更少。相比之下,仅三分之一强的非硅谷专业人士对本公司持类似看法。

试验、渐进式、迭代创新往往受人追捧,人们并不提倡在项目之初就搞定一切。在硅谷,常见的口头禅是“行动,试验,改进”。

其它行业的公司如何效仿这种试错文化?当然,我们无法向普通市场发布测试版的汽车安全气囊或喷气式发动机。但对于其它行业的IT高管而言,在进行决策或产品及软件研发时,可以效仿这种“测试版”态度。

在硅谷,快速而敏捷地决策胜过缓慢、按部就班得来的共识,特别是在这种一夜之间某些产品就有可能销声匿迹的环境下。而对于新产品利润空间逐渐缩小的行业而言,这点同样适用。建立一个快速反应,勇于承担风险的企业文化,以及快速的产品研发流程至关重要。

以位于奥克兰旧金山湾东部的高乐氏公司为例。该公司有100年的历史,主要生产清洁用品。公司IT部门现采用一种敏捷式(scrum-style)软件开发模式,在这种管理模式下,软件开发者经常与业务部门的同事坐在一起,向他们展示应用程序的进展,并听取他们的意见,从而使最终产品更符合业务需求。高乐氏首席信息官拉尔夫•洛拉(Ralph Loura)表示,“我们奉行的是,先迅速拿出一个初步方案,然后从中吸取经验教训,并在下一阶段完善它。”

2. 忠诚——但独立

Silicon Valley is full of dedicated professionals. They often work long hours at the local office and outside the office. 71% of respondents expressed high degree of loyalty to employers, this proportion is far higher than in other regions. In fact, their higher loyalty stems from the work itself and more of my colleagues love their dedication stems from the vision of the future prospects for technology and dedication, by contrast, the effectiveness of the company for which it is to achieve this the great cause of the carrier.

This is why Silicon Valley see right person ready to quit reason, especially in the face of those jobs when cooperating with top talent. Silicon Valley people like freedom of contract workers in different workplaces conversion. This has created a pool of Silicon Valley with a high degree of liquidity. Compared to other regions, professionals in Silicon Valley are more willing to accept the invitation from other companies. In Silicon Valley, more than half of the respondents said that, you can easily find a job within two months.

While not every business wants to have such a high personnel turnover ( see supplement ), but our study shows that many companies recognize the talent and creativity to make up the value of the flow, even if only in the internal implementation of this model. For example, in the interview, some CIO will create an incentive for IT professionals and engineering talent flow each organizational structure, so that the whole company is free to share talents and creativity.

In some cases, we found that some CIO will be intentionally introduced into the external customer views the work. Basque • Ilhet (Bask Iyer) 2011 joined located Sunnyvale, California Juniper (Juniper Networks), served as CIO post, after he worked for Honeywell International Inc. (Honeywell International). He sometimes require engineers to empathy, if they later become a company's CIO, which will buy the company's products. Ilhet say, this method can create engineer Leadership, avoiding the limitations caused by the internal perspective, engineers can more objectively look at the product.

3. 竞争——但合作

Although ruthless competitors and Silicon Valley high-tech companies in Silicon Valley, but cooperation between them is everywhere. Silicon Valley people are very focused on teamwork. We found that, compared to people in other places, when you choose to work in Silicon Valley, who pay more attention to the future collaborator, this would affect their decision to a certain extent.

Encourage internal collaboration and useful for any company in any industry. For example, the company's chief information officer Tom Gap • Caesar (Tom Keiser) dismantled the fixed office chairs and walls off the IT department to provide an open space for brainstorming. This office is designed to encourage collaboration, face to face, has been widely used in many industries.

See beyond the right person with the company's exchange is also very important. Actively participate in open source projects IT professionals in Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is more than twice as much.

This collaborative atmosphere of Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley who also benefited from a positive peer culture and adding personal network habits. Most respondents felt that compared to other places within the IT people, institutions and organizations and foreign counterparts networking is an important factor in the success of Silicon Valley. Facebook Chief Information Officer Tim • Campos (Tim Campos) affirmed the importance of such connections are: "This is a prime requirement, I can complete the task within the company, because I know who to turn to for help outside the company." In Silicon Valley People tend to rely on personal connections to find a new job, rather than headhunters.

These people constitute an important network of contacts in Silicon Valley subculture, acceptance and approval of others is sometimes more important than the boss or colleague recognized in my circle of friends. For example, more than a third of respondents in Silicon Valley professionals said they are willing to help people in my circle of friends, even if doing so would be detrimental to the interests of their companies.

Executives outside the high-tech sector is also pursuing this peer network mode. Clorox Chief Information Officer Ralph • Lola stressed: "People from such connections can be a rich source of ideas to increase business opportunities where people can come into contact with most of the venture capital company, people engaged in solving today's technology. problem, it is very precious. "For example, Lola uses his contacts in cooperation with a number of Silicon Valley start-up company, with this method, a lot of problems solved.

And chief information officer of a Silicon Valley technology companies together had a breakfast, Lola would help solve a puzzle for a long time the question: When some items are transferred to the end of the priority list, how to motivate depression project manager. CIO word on who awoke him, and that is to communicate openly. Lola managers began to use visual tools to show why some items to be given priority. He said, "As a result, even if they are not happy, you can understand the reasons behind the company's point of view and stand to support the decision."

4.务实——但乐观

硅谷专业人士非常务实,因为他们深知成功来自无数失败。他们视失败为一个必经阶段,一个学习、成长和改进的机会。但是,在这种务实态度之外,硅谷人还有一种固有的乐观精神:竭尽全力,采用正确的方法和人才,大部分问题最终都能解决。

务实且乐观的精神让硅谷从两方面受益。首先,为硅谷注入一股顽强的韧性和革新能力。在硅谷,人们失败后会立马站起来,拍拍尘土继续前进。第二,鼓励一种谨慎的风险偏好。逾半数参加埃森哲调查的高科技人士认为,自己的公司是高风险偏好者,而只有四分之一非硅谷公司持此观点。

鉴于硅谷高科技行业的波动性和不确定性,勇于冒险是一种顽强的务实精神。正如脸谱首席执行官马克•扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)所言,“不冒险就是最大的风险。这是个快速变化的世界,不冒险必定失败。”

5. 外在激励——且内在满足

在硅谷,巨大物质奖励激励着人们,但他们同时也深深被内在成就感所激励着。埃森哲调研结果显示出这个特点。大部分硅谷IT专业人员认同挣钱对他们来说非常重要——但是大部分人也承认,他们宁愿薪酬少点,只要工作本身可能激励他们,帮助他们在专业领域成长,为公司创造价值。

硅谷人注重智力激励,勇于接受挑战,用创意去解决困难,这就足以解释为什么存在这些相互矛盾的方面。近一半受访的硅谷专业人士说,他们在业余时间钻研技术项目是为了“获得乐趣”。

因此,对于任何公司而言,满足员工内在需求最有效的方法就是提供具有挑战和报酬丰厚的工作。一位科技行业高管总结道:“对员工说的第一件事就是,‘伙计们,我有一个好活派给你们,一项能证明你们自己的工作。’”

CAMICO互助保险公司也深知珍视员工创意的重要,该公司位于加州圣马特奥市,专为注册会计师(CPAs)提供服务。受到硅谷企业的启发,该公司首席信息官从下至上推出一个员工激励项目。他们从仅有13人的IT部门开始,尝试新的创意。公司IT和电子商务部副总裁杰各•兰德哈瓦(Jag Randhawa)说,光是纸质文件电子化建议,每年就为公司节省30万美元。

回到之前的问题:其它地方的IT高管能否复制硅谷高科技公司独特的企业文化?

该文化的某些要素是无法复制的,也不应该被复制。企业不会鼓励员工降低对本公司的忠诚度,或是为了帮助朋友而置本公司利益于不顾。另外,整个硅谷闲散和乐观的气氛也是加州所独有的,无法轻易复制。

但硅谷及其周边的非高科技公司的经验表明,其他行业的公司也可以建立起这种吸引顶级人才、增加竞争力和创造力的企业文化。

本文列举的一些传统行业已经发生了一些变化:开放合作,快速产品研发,消费类电子产品(比如平板电脑等)的使用,在合作中大量使用视频会议等等。这些都标志着这些有着数十年历史的老牌公司正变成“很酷”的工作场所。首席信息官们可以通过鼓励开源项目和众包项目来吸收新创意、新技术及人才。

“我想这种新工作环境对于90后,00后以及未来新生代雇员更具吸引力,”高乐氏的洛拉说,“他们追求一种与众不同的工作环境。”

这种环境对雇主同样重要。因为在数字时代,IT部门不再仅仅是一个后台部门,IT本身就是商业。其他公司需要向硅谷高科技企业学习,否则,在面对来自硅谷高科技公司的竞争时,他们将打一场无准备之仗。

重塑人力资源管理,应对人才流动

在硅谷,高科技公司喜欢从竞争对手处挖人才(见正文)。员工在另谋高就后返回原公司也很正常。在极大程度上,专业人力资源管理人员已接受高人员流动率这一事实——即使不是心甘情愿。

实际上,公司预计到人才的持续性流动,而且也清楚硅谷地区的人才流动率高于其他地方。所以,硅谷公司更加认识到人力资源管理在吸引人才方面的重要性。70%的硅谷IT专业人士认为,其公司非常重视招聘、吸引和挽留顶级人才,而其他地区中,只有不到50%的人士有同感。(回正文)

关于本研究
本研究旨在用数据解读硅谷文化特征。埃森哲对逾600名IT全职专业人员进行了调研。约一半调研者来自硅谷,另一半分散在美国各地。两组调研者在年龄、性别、行业、公司规模和工作职位上分布相当,包括企业IT部门、产品部门或项目经理以及数据科学家。(回正文)


作者简介
珍妮 G•哈里斯 是埃森哲卓越绩效研究院IT研究部门董事总经理,常驻芝加哥。

艾伦 E•奥尔特 是埃森哲卓越绩效研究院研究员,擅长于IT战略和管理,常驻波士顿。